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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 261-267

Correlates of bullying among adolescent boys and girls in kano metropolis Nigeria: A mixed-methods study

1 Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
2 Department of Community Medicine, Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital; Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Fatimah Isma'il Tsiga-Ahmed
Department of Community Medicine, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University Kano/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJM.NJM_173_21

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Background: Bullying is the most common expression of violence among school children globally. Associated with an array of risk and protective factors, it affects the physical, mental, and social well-being of its victims. Aims: We assessed the prevalence, patterns, and correlates of bullying among in-school adolescent boys and girls in Kano Metropolis Kano, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Using a mixed-methods study design, structured questionnaires were administered to 635 adolescent boys and girls across 30 schools. The point of saturation was achieved after 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with the adolescents. One FGD each was carried out in 13 of the 30 sampled schools. Logistic regression and thematic analysis were used to analyse the data. Results: Adolescents were mainly Hausa/Fulani (n = 522, 86.9%), and the most represented age group was the middle adolescence (n = 299, 47.1%). Bullying was prevalent among 73.0% (n = 230) and 61.3% (n = 196) of the boys and girls, respectively, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). FGDs revealed that bullying was common, and sanctions against it in some girls' schools could possibly explain a lower prevalence. Boys who played sports (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26–0.90), who had delinquent friends (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.33–0.99) and girls with a good self-esteem (aOR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.23–0.64), and who had delinquent friends (P = 0.31, aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.36–0.95) were less likely to be bullied. On the other hand, the factors that increased the likelihood of being bullied were having unsupportive teachers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.39–5.40), which increased the likelihood of being bullied. FGDs revealed that bullied adolescents were perceived as weak, unpopular, and had few friends. Conclusion: Bullying occurred among a significant majority of the in-school adolescents within the metropolis. More commonly in boys, bullying was verbal, as was social bullying among adolescent girls. Antibullying strategies should target individual behaviour, teachers' attitudes, and building a positive school climate. Teaching adolescents skills on self-awareness, self-management, and relationship management are necessary.

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