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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 298-301

Blood Use in Haematological Malignancies in Calabar

1 Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria
2 Department of Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kingsley Akaba
Department of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJM.NJM_11_22

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Background: Patients with haematological malignancies are often multiply transfused. Blood use by this patient has both medical, economic, and social implications, and the frequency of blood transfusion among this cohort of patients is being scrutinized. Aim: The study aimed at profiling the blood use by patients with haematological malignancies managed at the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH). Materials and Methods: A retrospective study that was conducted based on the frequency of blood use among haematological malignancies patients at UCTH, Calabar. Data on blood use by haematologic malignancies (HM) patients at the UCTH from July 2019 to June 2021 were retrieved from the medical records in terms of sex, age, type of HM, and frequency of blood use during the period of review. The data and results collated were analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2016 and IBM SPSS version 21. The data were analyzed using simple statistics (frequencies and percentages), and the results were presented in tables and charts. Results: A total of 48 HMs patients managed in our facility were included in the cohort, and a total of 102 blood was used during the period of review. Overall, the frequency of blood transfusion varies from one type of HM to another. Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML), chronic lymphatic leukaemia (CLL), and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) account for 92.2% of blood transfused, whereas Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) represent 7.8%. The male-to-female ratio was 1.5:1. Overall age ranges from 20 to 89 years, the mode was 54 years, and the median age was 53 years. NHL is said to consume 45 units of the whole, followed by CLL and AML, both used 17 units each, whereas CML and HL were said to have used 15 units and 8 units, respectively, with MM and ALL nil. There is also a significant association between type of haematological malignancies and blood transfusion (P = 0.0016). Conclusion: This study presents an overview of blood transfusion use in patients with haematological malignancies. The implication of blood utilization is the shortage of blood and increased incidence of blood complications such as transfusion-transmissible infections and alloimmunization with HM patients. Furthermore, the financial burden on the patient, the cost implication of procuring a unit of whole blood which is between 20 and 30 dollars, especially in a low-resource country, where remuneration blood donation is still the major source as compared to the standard voluntary donation in a low-resource setting like ours where the poor attitude toward blood donation still remains a great challenge.

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