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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 462-466

Profile of polycythaemia vera in South Western Nigeria

1 Department of Haematology and Virology, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State, Nigeria
2 Department of Radiology, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Patrick Olanrewaju Osho
Department of Haematology and Virology, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo State
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJM.NJM_56_22

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Background: Polycythaemia vera (PV) is the most common myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), others include essential thrombocytosis and primary myelofibrosis. PV is a Philadelphia chromosome-negative MPN, it is a rare haematologic disorder seen primarily in adults aged 60 years and older, with a higher prevalence in men. Aim: The aim of this study is to record the prevalence and explain the epidemiological, clinical, and biological PV in teaching hospital in South Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case notes of all patients with a diagnosis of polycythaemia vera managed at the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital, Ondo state, over a 3-year period between January 2018 and November 2021 were reviewed. The clinical and laboratory findings were extracted from the case records. SPSS-16 (SPSS Inc., USA) and Microsoft Excel statistical software packages were used for statistical calculations. Results: A total of 26 cases of PV were managed at University of Medical Sciences, Ondo state, during the period of the review. There were 20 male and 6 female, with the mean age for males 41.61 ± 18.1 and 32.33 ± 0.52 for females. Majority of the patients in the study (53.8%) had headache and fatigue, 54.5% of the patients experienced dizziness, itching and visual disturbance, hypertension, weight loss, and subconjunctival haemorrhage were found in 6 (23.08%), 5 (19.20%), and 4 (15.40%), respectively, night sweat, dyspepsia, and splenomegaly accounted for (1) 3.85%. None of the patients experienced thrombosis and bleeding. Six of the patients were able to pay for Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) mutation in which 4 of the results were positive for JAK2 mutation while 2 patients were able to afford to pay for serum erythropoietin; the results were below the normal value. All the patients were able to pay for full blood count, peripheral blood film, and bone marrow aspirations. The average packed cell volume for males was 59.7 ± 2.3 and 55.22 ± 4.9 for females while the mean blood and platelets count in our study was 11.19 ± 1.23 and 486 ± 122.3 × 109/l. Conclusion: The study showed a low prevalence of PV in Nigeria although most cases of PV were seen among the young adults < 60 years of age affecting their life expectancy because it has a detrimental effect on their work productivity, family life, and social life.

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