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SPECIAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 484-490

Development of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus-2 (SARS-COV-2) Vaccines


1 Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria
2 Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Kenneth Ogar Inaku
Department of Chemical Pathology and Immunology, Faculty of Basic Clinical Sciences, University of Calabar, Calabar
Nigeria
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/NJM.NJM_172_21

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The new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) brings about the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is a pathogen that causes extreme respiratory tract infection, especially as the world's populations had no previous immunity and there were little or no uniformly acceptable treatment options. The virus may persist to bring about considerable morbidity and mortality except an efficient vaccine is produced. Following erstwhile evidence and experience with SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome, the major focus to vaccine development was the spike glycoprotein, regarded as the most important target for SARS-CoV-2 immunotherapies. Collaborative efforts were undertaken to ensure that manufacturing occurred as quickly as possible to salvage the situation. Three vaccine candidates were respectively made of one protein-based vaccine, a simian-derived adenovirus vector, and one messenger RNA vaccine. Two of them published their short-term analyses and effective results after their third trial phase. The messenger RNA vaccine was first confirmed in the USA and the adenovirus-derived vaccine in the UK. This paper gives a narrative review of the literature on the present knowledge about this new virus as it concerns the drawn-up plans of COVID-19 vaccines that are not only effective but safe following the new and established approaches to vaccine development.


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