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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 31  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 549-555

Microalbuminuria and its associated risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients attending a tertiary care facility in Kano, Northwest Nigeria

1 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, Nigeria
2 Department of Paediatrics, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
3 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
4 Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Bawa Ibrahim Abubakar
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medical Sciences, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/NJM.NJM_86_22

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Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection affects multiple organs and the kidney is a common target, thereby making renal disease one of the recognised complications of HIV infection. Microalbuminuria represents an early, important marker of kidney damage in several disease conditions including HIV-infected highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naïve patients. Early detection of microalbuminuria is critical to slowing down the progression of kidney dysfunction to chronic kidney disease in HIV-infected patients. Determination of predictive factors for microalbuminuria in these group of patients may serve as avenues for intervention to prevent HIV-associated renal diseases. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in HIV/AIDS-infected adults on HAART at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. Patients, Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 500 subjects including 250 HAART-treated and 250 HAART-naïve HIV/AIDS participants. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used to collect relevant demographic and clinical information. Blood and urine samples were collected for serum creatinine and urinary albumin and creatinine measurements, respectively, and the results were collated and analysed. Comparison of categorical variables was done using Chi-square/Fisher's exact test, where applicable with level of significance set at P < 0.05. Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria among the two groups studied was found to be high (22.8% for HAART naïve versus 18.4% for HAART treated, respectively) while the risk factors identified were estimated glomerular filtration rate, low CD4 count, and duration of HIV treatment. Conclusion: The major predictors of microalbuminuria include low CD4 count, duration of HIV infection (<30 months), and duration of HAART treatment (<30 months).

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