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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2019| January-March  | Volume 28 | Issue 1  
    Online since February 19, 2020

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Trainees collaboratively investigating early career doctors' themes: A nard initiative in Nigeria
Oladimeji Adebayo, Oluwaseyi Ogunsuji, Olusegun Olaopa, Selekeowei Kpuduwei, Oluwafemi Efuntoye, Omotayo Francis Fagbule, Ehiosun Aigbomian, Morohunmubo Ibiyo, Dabota Yvonne Buowari, Umar Francis Wasinda, Yahya Abdulmajid Ibrahim
January-March 2019, 28(1):93-97
Early career doctors (ECDs) are faced with many unique challenges; this is even more pronounced in low resources setting like country Nigeria. To unravel and improve understanding of these challenges the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria (NARD) initiated a trainee driven research initiative. NARD initiated the Research and Statistics Committee (RSC), a six member team derived from her membership. In an attempt to carry out her responsibility efficiently the committee created the Research Collaboration network (RCN), a 43 member team comprising ECDs from across Nigeria. The key themes to be explored under this initiative include demographic, work and psychosocial issues as it affect ECDs in Nigeria. This article is set out to describe in detail the NARD initiative in term of the structure, operational modalities and agenda for the year 2018/19.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Covert contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Ibadan, Nigeria; Covert contraceptive in Ibadan, Nigeria
Olutosin A Awolude, Ayodele S Olagunju
January-March 2019, 28(1):56-62
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of covert contraceptive use among women of reproductive age in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross sectional study among women attending a family planning clinic in a maternity teaching hospital in Ibadan, Nigeria was conducted. Data was collected on sociodemographic characteristics, contraceptive use and partner awareness of use. The socio-demographic predictors of covert contraceptive use were explored using logistic regressions. RESULTS: Twenty-five (6.8%) of the 365 respondents were practicing covert contraception. Their mean age was 34.7+6.67 years, 98.6% were married and with modal parity of 3 (29.6%). A logistic regression analysis showed that participants' age (p = 0.555), occupation (p = 0.679), education (p = 0.642), parity (p = 0.385) and husbands' education (p = 0.926) were not statistically associated with covert contraceptive use while husbands' financial supports (p = 0.000) and approval for family planning use (p = 0.000) were associated with reduction in the likelihood covert contraceptive use. CONCLUSIONS: Covert contraceptive use exist among our women. Poor financial support and disapproval by the husbands were the strongest predictors of the practice. Greater male involvement in contraceptive service provision will help address these negative factors promoting covert contraceptive practices.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Completeness and adequacy of clinical and demographic information in non- gynaecologic surgical pathology requisition forms: An analysis of 1046 cases
SS Soyemi, FA Faduyile, DA Sanni, JO Obafunwa
January-March 2019, 28(1):1-4
BACKGROUND: An important cornerstone in health care delivery is the field of surgical pathology and one of its major aims is to provide a complete, precise and comprehensive diagnosis within a short period of time. In achieving this, the clinician needs to properly fill a surgical pathology requisition form. METHOD: All the consecutive requisition forms from January 1, 2018 to April 30, 2018, totaling 1046 were evaluated for completeness of the information. The requesting clinicians were unaware and cytologic smears were excluded. Patient confidentiality was maintained as no names were recorded. All the Information on the forms was recorded as being present or absent. Analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science version 20. RESULTS: Altogether 1046 forms were evaluated and (100%) of the sample population bore the surnames and first names. Ages were recorded in 93.7%. Similarly, 68.2% of the forms did not bear the hospital number. Clinical summary and date of request were absent in 42.9% and 35.4% of the forms respectively. Clinicians name/ signature and investigation required were absent in 25.1% and 21.1% of the forms respectively. Overall, 77.6% of information was provided while 22.4% not provided. CONCLUSION: The names were completely filled in all the requisition forms. Others were incompletely filled. These findings should be communicated to Clinicians and the recurring attitude of allowing House Officers to fill the requisition forms should b discouraged. Efforts should also be made to let Clinicians appreciate the importance of good clinical information since this determines to a large extent the output of laboratory results.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF] [CITATIONS]
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Knee arthropathy hue to oistally migrat kuntscher nail: A case report
JE Asuquo, IE Abang, CO Anisi, CO Osakwe
January-March 2019, 28(1):84-87
BACKGROUND: The aim of this article is to report a complication that was common with Kuntscher unlocked intramedullary nail to remind surgeons of its existence even in this era of improved implant design and to consider it as an etiology in knee pathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The history, physical findings, results of investigations and past medical history of the presenting patient were reviewed with relevant literature. RESULTS: This is a report of a the existence of this condition in our environment and its usual management in a 34year old lady who presented in the Orthopedic clinic with features suggestive of right knee arthropathy. She had surgical removal o the implant through the knee; post-operative assessment was good with normal knee range of motion. CONCLUSION: Knee arthropathy due to distal migration of K-nail can still be encountered even when the use of the implant is obsolete. Young and upcoming Orthopedic Surgeons should consider it as an etiology.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Orofacial melanomas; A report of three cases
Chidozie Onwuka, Chibuzor Uguru, Mark Nwaoga, Uche Mgbeokwere, Uche Okechi, Chukwubuzor Okwuosa, Obiora Umeanuka, Chidinma Onwuka
January-March 2019, 28(1):88-92
BACKGROUND: Oro-facial melanomas are rare malignancies of the maxillofacial region accounting for 0.5% of malignancies seen in oral mucosa. This is a case series of three case reports of orofacial melanomas highlighting their management and outcome in our centre. FINDINGS: The cases reported are of three oro-facial melanomas occurring in two females and a male. The age range of the patients was 40-68 years. There were two cases of melanoma of the palate and gingivae and a single case of melanoma of the parotid gland. All the patients presented with stage IV tumours. Of the three cases one died within few weeks of presentatio while the remaining two are alive and under review. CONCLUSION: Orofacial melanomas are rare painless lesions which are wrongly considered non-harmful in our environment thus leading to late presentation and poor prognosis.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevention of prosthetic joint infection in total hip and knee arthroplasties: Evidence based recommendations
OJ Alonge, CO Ayekoloye, SO Ogunlade, II Adeoye-Sunday, MO Okunola, TO Alonge
January-March 2019, 28(1):98-107
Prosthetic joint infection is a dreaded complication of Total Joint Arthroplasty. Prevention, which is far more cost effective, should be of paramount importance to the arthroplasty surgeon. Proper patient selection and preparation as well as strict asepsis and antisepsis are the basic principles of prevention.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Health effects of noise exposure levels among instrumentalists in pentecostal churches in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria
FE Anyiam, KE Douglas
January-March 2019, 28(1):63-72
BACKGROUND: Noise is everywhere in our daily lives and becomes very important as it affects our health. Religion is an integral part of daily lives and the use of acoustic and electronic instruments in worship. With the increase in sophistry of these instruments come their attendant untoward effects on the auditory organs of the body. This study was to assess noise exposure levels amongst instrumentalists in Pentecostal churches in Port Harcourt City, Nigeria. MATERIALS & METHODS: Following ethical consideration, 216 consenting respondents from 30 churches in Port Harcourt were recruited by table of random numbers. Structured close ended interviewer administered questionnaire incorporating the Hearing Health Quick Test (HHQT) was used to access demographic data. Hearing assessments were also performed using tonal audiometry. The data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics. RESULTS: Most 90.28% and 37.96% of respondents were male and within the 39-45 year-old age range respectively. Also, 80.56% of respondents were aware that loud music can cause permanent hearing loss. The prevalence of NIHL and Tinnitus was 39% and 38% respectively; and only 19% used Hearing Protection Devices (HPD). Statistically significant risk of NIHL was observed in musicians who had experienced tinnitus, played only amplified instruments and Music experience greater or equal to 10 years (p=0.001). CONCLUSION: Gospel instrumentalists are exposed to noise in the course of their duties which have significant effect on their hearing. Use of Hearing Protection Devices (HPD) as a personal protective equipment is encouraged just as health education of this group of workers is necessary.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Medical students' perceptions regarding antibiotics use and antimicrobial resistance in Ebonyi State, Nigeria
Ijeoma N Okedo-Alex, Ugochukwu C Madubueze, Chukwuma D Umeokonkwo, Ifeyinwa C Akamike
January-March 2019, 28(1):73-79
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical students as future doctors have important roles to play in the control of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the perceptions of medical students regarding antibiotics use and antimicrobial resistance in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the 184 fifth and sixth year medical students in Ebonyi State University, Nigeria using semi-structured, self-administered questionnaires. Proportions, chi square and logistic regression were estimated with Epi Info version 7.2 at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Respondents were mostly males (62.5%), aged 20-29 years (68.9%) with 60.9% of them in final year. Majority (85.9%) had used antibiotics in the last one year. Most (78.3%) rated themselves to have adequate knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance but only 40.2% respondents had positive perception towards antibiotic use and resistance. Similarly, only 46.7% agreed that hand washing was important in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Majority (53.3%) believed that antibiotics were safe drugs and should be used commonly while only 50.5% disagreed with use of antibiotics as first line treatment for sore throat. Desire for more education on antimicrobial resistance and use was a significant predictor of positive perception (OR 0.36, 95% CI; 0.15-0.87; P=0.024) CONCLUSIONS: There was poor perception towards antibiotic use and resistance in spite of the high rates of antibiotic consumption and self-rated knowledge on antimicrobial use. There is need for reorientation of medical students' perceptions towards antibiotic usage and the role of infection control in curbing antimicrobial resistance.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Audit of medical records keeping at a Nigerian geriatric clinic
Dabota Yvonne Buowari
January-March 2019, 28(1):80-83
BACKGROUND: A medical record also known as health chart is the written health information about a patient or clients and is always opened whenever a patient or client visits a health facility. There are different types of medical records and it may be problem based or patient based; paper based or electronic. It enhances continuity of care; source of communication between healthcare professionals, as aides de memoire and it is a legal document. OBJECTIVE: To compare the medical records keeping with reference standards. METHOD: This is a prospective clinical audit, was conducted in a Nigerian Nursing Home for the elderly. The medical record keeping was compared with the generic standards of medical record keeping of the Health Informatics Unit of the Royal College of Physicians. Two clinical audit cycles were performed. RESULTS: At the first clinical audit cycle only the third standard was 50%, others were zero. At the second clinical audit cycle there was improvement and 100% increase in standard 1, 3, 4 and 5, with 10% increase in standard 2. Paper based medical records are kept at the nursing home. Most of the residents do not know their age as their birth dates was not recorded. There were 30 residents at the nursing home when the clinical audit was conducted. CONCLUSION: Initially, the medical record keeping was below standard but with the clinical audit there was improvement. Clinical audit is important in medical practice in comparing the practice with standards.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Factors associated with substance use among secondary school adolescents in Gwagwalada Area Council, Abuja, Nigeria
E Ekop Eno, C Anochie Ifeoma, Obembe Ayo, I Airede Kareem
January-March 2019, 28(1):13-21
BACKGROUND: Adolescents use substances for various reasons such as for pleasure, stress and anger amanagement. Many factors have been reported to influence adolescent substance use. However, there is paucity of reports from this part of Nigeria. AIM/OBJECTIVES: To identify the socio-demographic factors associated with substance use among secondary school adolescents in Gwagwalada Area Council. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, descriptive, questionnaire-based, study was carried out in secondary schools among adolescents aged 10 years to 18 years who met the inclusion criteria and after appropriate ethical approval had been obtained. RESULTS: One thousand, one hundred and ninety-six student-filled questionnaires were analysed. The mean age of the students was 14.54 years ± SD 2.28. The students' religion, family structure, residence and type of school were associated with licit substance use while their religion, family structure and residence were associated with illicit substance use (P =<0.05). There was also statistically significant relationships between frequency in participation in religious activities and tobacco use (P = <0.01) and birth order and cocaine and hallucinogen use at P = 0.014 and P = 0.018, respectively. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: Several factors were associated with adolescent substance use in this study. It is recommended that more in-depth studies be done to determine causality.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Early outcome of open locked intramedullary nailing of femoral diaphyseal fractures in a resource – poor setting
Chukwuemeka Okechukwu Anisi, Innocent Egbeji Abang, Joseph Effiong Asuquo
January-March 2019, 28(1):22-26
BACKGROUND: Closed locked intramedullary nailing is largely considered the preferred treatment option for fractures of the femoral diaphysis, owing to its associated high union and low complication rates. In resource poor regions where intraoperative imaging is not readily available, most of these injuries are treated by open locked intramedullary nailing and plate osteosynthesis. This study was designed to assess the outcome of open locked intramedullary nailing of femoral diaphyseal fractures. METHODS: Medical records and radiographs of all adult patients who had open locked intramedullary nailing of fractures of the femoral diaphysis between January 1, 2013 and July 31, 2017 were retrieved. A total of 45 patients with 46 fractures of the femoral diaphysis were retrospectively studied. Each patient was followed up for at least 12 months. Early outcome of treatment was assessed using the Thorresen's criteria. RESULTS: A total of 45 patients (24 male; 21 female) with 46 femoral diaphyseal fractures were studied. The age range of the patients was 18 years to 80 years, with a mean age of 33.56 (SD=12.87) years. Forty two (91.3%) cases were closed fractures. Twenty four (53.3%) patients had right femoral diaphyseal fracture. The overall union rate was 95.7%. The range of time to fracture union was 12 weeks to 34 weeks, with an overall mean time to fracture union of 13.65 ± 3.57 weeks. Ipsilateral knee joint stiffness (n=4, 8.7%) and osteomyelitis (n=3, 6.5%) were the commonest complications recorded. Overall infection rate was 10.8%. Using the Thoresen's criteria, the overall outcome of treatment in this study was excellent in 37 (80.4%) patients. CONCLUSION: There is no significant difference between the outcome of open nailing compared to closed nailing of femoral diaphyseal fractures
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Incidence and outcome of umbilical cord prolapse: Experience in a tertiary health facility Southeastern Nigeria
Benjamin I Egbo, Obinna I Oraekwe
January-March 2019, 28(1):27-30
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord prolapse is a rare obstetric emergency with adverse perinatal outcomes. The incidence has been on the decline, hence necessitating the need for periodic evaluation in order to document its contribution to perinatal indices. We sought to determine the incidence, predisposing factors and fetal outcome of umbilical cord prolapse. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study carried out in Federal Medical Centre (FMC), Umuahia over a 5-year period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2013. Data was analyzed using WinPepi version 11.65. Statistical analysis was done using Chi-squared test with level of significance set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: The incidence of umbilical cord prolapse was 0.3%. The mean age was 31.8 ± 5.1 years. Multiparous women constituted 80% of those diagnosed with the condition while 84% of the women were unbooked. Although multiple risk factors were noted in the parturient, multiparity ranked highest (80%) while artificial rupture of membrane contributed the least (4%). Most (84%) of the women were delivered by emergency cesarean section. The perinatal mortality rate was 12%. CONCLUSION: Umbilical cord prolapse remains a high risk condition to the fetus. Therefore, early presentation to the health care facility in the event of membrane rupture may improve its outcome. RUNNING TITLE: Outcome of umbilical cord prolapse
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Patients' knowledge of health rights and satisfaction with outpatient services at the tertiary hospitals in Enugu state, Nigeria
C Ekwueme Osaeloka, C Ekwueme Agatha, OG Ochonma
January-March 2019, 28(1):31-40
BACKGROUND: Patient satisfaction is a key indicator for measuring the success of the health system goals, delivery quality care that is safe, equitable, patient-centered, evidence-based, timely and efficient, through interprofessional collaborative team work. Equally, patient's knowledge of their health rights will enhance better provider-patients relationship, patient satisfaction, and effective care management. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare patients' knowledge of health rights, satisfaction with the physicians' conducts and outpatient services across three tertiary hospitals in Enugu, Nigeria. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study of 304 patients selected from the outpatient clinics of the University of Nigeria Teaching hospital (UNTH), National Orthopaedic Hospital (NOHE), and Enugu State University of Science and Technology Teaching Hospital (ESUTH), from October to December, 2015 was conducted. A four point Likert scale, dissatisfied (1), very dissatisfied (2), moderately satisfied (3), and very satisfied (4) was applied. Knowledge of health rights were scored as follows, 0-5 poor knowledge, 6-10 good knowledge, 11 and above very good knowledge. A minimum sample size of 91 patients was calculated for each of the study hospital, but increased to100 each, to enhance precision, reduce error margin, and to contend possible nonresponses and incompleteness. A multi-stage sampling technique was applied. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. RESULTS: Knowledge of health rights was poor in 5.9%, 20.8%, and 14.9% of patients (X2 =9.61, p=0.000), and very good in 70.6%, 46.5% and 59.4% patients (X2 =12.14, p=0.000) from UNTH, NOHE, and ESUTH respectively. The mean knowledge scores were 10.50 ±3.240 for UNTH; 8.72±2.953 for NOHE; and 9.93±3.151 for the ESUTH. The overall mean knowledge scores of the patients across the three hospitals was not statistically significant (F=0.000, P =1.000). Patients' overall mean satisfaction with physicians' conduct and services was 3.63±0.525 for UNTH, 3.45±0.741 for NOHE, and 3.47±0.609 for ESUTH, with no statistically significant difference (F=0.000, P =1.000). Overall mean satisfaction scores for the general outpatient services were 3.19±0.728, 3.15±0.713, and 3.00±0.721 for UNTH, NOHE, and ESUT respectively. The observed differences in the overall mean satisfaction for the general services provisions across the hospitals was not statistically significant (F=0.000, P=1.000). Patients' mean knowledge scores were statistically (p=0.000) associated with mean satisfaction with the physicians' conduct and services provision across hospitals. CONCLUSION: Patients knowledge of health rights and satisfaction with physicians' conducts and outpatient services across the hospitals were generally good and satisfactory, but differed statistically in-between hospitals.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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The association between sperm quality and asymptomatic chlamydial infection in infertile men at a private fertility clinic in Nigeria
Folasade A Bello, Imran O Morhason-Bello, Moses O Ogundepo, Abayomi B Ajayi, Adesina Oladokun
January-March 2019, 28(1):41-45
BACKGROUND: Association between chlamydia trachomatis infection and male infertility is debated in literature. There is little or no information from Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of chlamydial infection and its association with sperm quality parameters among asymptomatic men that present for infertility treatment in a Nigeria facility. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted at a private assisted conception clinic in Lagos, Nigeria among 138 men seeking infertility care. Seminal fluid analysis and IgG Chlamydial serology were performed for each participant. Data obtained were analysed using SPSS; p was significant at <0.05. RESULTS: Of the 138 men screened, 13.9% were Chlamydia-positive. Twenty-one per cent of clients who tested positive to Chlamydia had predominantly immotile sperm, compared with 10.2% without the infection; 26.3% with non-progressive motility had Chlamydia, compared with 2.8% men who were not infected. These differences were statistically significant (p = 0.001). More of those (57.9%) with Chlamydia (compared to 33.1% without) had significant leukocyte counts (p = 0.037). There were no statistically significant differences in sperm count and percent motility between serologically positive and negative men. CONCLUSION: Positive Chlamydia serology is associated with non-progressive motility and leukocytospermia in infertile Nigerian men.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Assessment of patients knowledge and attitude towards diabetes and its relationship with glycemic control: A cross-sectional study in a Nigerian tertiary hospital
RC Anakwue, EE Young, CC Ezenduka, CI Okoli, AN Maduforo, ID Nnakenyi, CI Ndiokwelu, O Onwujekwe
January-March 2019, 28(1):46-55
BACKGROUND: It is postulated that increased knowledge of patients about diabetes as well as a positive attitude will lead to improved glycaemic control and better outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and attitude of diabetic patients in a tertiary hospital in Enugu and the relationship with their glycaemic control. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was done using a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic data and assess knowledge and attitude to diabetes on consecutive patients attending the outpatient clinic in a tertiary hospital. Responses were scored with equal weighting. The fasting blood glucose of the patients was measured and recorded. RESULT: There were 51(60.7%) females and 33 (39.3%) males, with majority (63.1%) in the age range 41 -64 years and 32(38.1%) had only primary education. The mean knowledge score was 6.19 ± 2.08 and 33(39.3%) demonstrated good knowledge. Knowledge did not differ between males and females (p=0.34), but was highest in those with tertiary education (p = 0.02). Positive attitude to the condition was recorded in 63(75%) subjects. There was poor correlation between knowledge and attitude (r = -0.161, p= 0.14). Those with good knowledge scores were 2 times more likely to have good glycaemic control compared with those with poor knowledge; OR = 2.015, p = 0.02. There was no significant difference between the glycemic control of those with good attitude and those with poor attitude (p= 0.08). CONCLUSION: Although overall knowledge was poor, patients had a good attitude to their illness. Knowledge, but not attitude was significantly positively associated with glycemic control.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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Prevalence of vaginal Group-B-Streptococcus, antibiotic and antigen sensitivity amongst parturients at the federal medical center Owerri, Nigeria
EE Idih, BU Ezem, OA Onyegbule, NA Ododo, CC Onumajuru
January-March 2019, 28(1):5-12
BACKGROUND: Group B streptococcus (GBS) is one of the principal agents of early onset neonatal sepsis, pneumonia and meningitis with significant morbidity for newborns and parturients. AIM: This study was done to determine the prevalence of vaginal group B streptococcus amongst parturients in FMC Owerri. It also aimed to elucidate the antibiotic sensitivity of the strains of GBS isolated while comparing the sensitivity of antigen detection tests of GBS to culture. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was done at the labour ward and lying-in units of the Federal Medical Center, Owerri,from February 2015 to October, 2015. It involved one hundred and eighty (180) women recruited systematically. Two swab samples, high vaginal and rectal were collected from the parturients intrapartum and cultured. The babies were examined and weighed immediately after delivery, seen on the second and tenth days after delivery for features of fever or any other complaints. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of GBS amongst parturients was found to be 6.1%. Prevalence of vaginal colonization was 3.3% and that of the rectum was 2.8%, (2c=0.1282, df=1,p=0.502). Neonates with colonized mothers all had complaints of fever postpartum which was statistically significant (=55.86, df=1, p<0.001). All the microbes showed 100% sensitivity to penicillin G, erythromycin, gentamycin and ceftriaxone. Antibiotic resistance was discovered in augmentin (67%), Cloxacillin (55.6%) and ofloxacin (33.3%). Antigen detection tests gave Sensitivity=100%, specificity=96.4%, positive predictive value (PPV) = 64.7%, negative predictive value (NPV) =100%. Detection in both vaginal (=60.290,p=0.000) and rectal (=50.799,p=0.000) samples were statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of GBS in parturients in the Centre is low. Strains of GBS isolated amongst the sampled rd population in FMC Owerri had a high sensitivity to penicillin G, erythromycin, gentamycin and 3rd generation cephalosporins. Antigen detection method for screening of GBS though very sensitive is however not specific with a significant false positive detection rate due to antigen cross reaction. It is however recommended that antigen detection be employed as intrapartum measure in high risk cases to reduce turnover time whilst supported by culture results later. There was associated significant neonatal sequaelae and further research to establish causal relationship will be advised.
[ABSTRACT]   Full text not available  [PDF]
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